Class 5 SST Chapter 14 Important Notes

Class 5 SST Chapter 14 Important Notes from Conserving Our Environment

What is environment?

Everything that is around us is called environment. It consists of both living and non-living things.

Living things: Animals, plants, human beings etc.

Non-living thing: Air, soil, water, buildings, roads and all other man made things around us etc.



  • Mixing of unwanted and harmful substances into the environment is called pollution.
  • Contamination of these harmful substances into the environment cause the negative effects on the nature.
  • Contamination means being impure.

Reasons of pollution

Humans have created so many things which save our time, make our life easy and comfortable. While doing this we have not cared for the environment and damaged it. Environment is continuously being damaged by pollution.

Types of Pollution

  • Air Pollution
  • Water Pollution
  • Land Pollution
  • Noise Pollution
  • Radioactive Pollution
  • Light Pollution etc.
Common types of pollution

Air Pollution

Air pollution is caused by:

  • Burning of fuels
  • Smoke from vehicles and factories
  • Deforestation etc.

Air pollution can be controlled by:

  • Reducing fuel consumption
  • Using filters in chimneys to filter poisonous gases.
  • Afforestation.

Water Pollution

Water pollution is caused by:

  • Poisonous wastes from industries into the water bodies.
  • Sewage and waste water from homes into the water bodies.
  • Dumping dead animals and garbage into the rivers.

Water pollution can be controlled by:

  • Treating the wastes from industries before disposing into water.
  • Setting up sewage treatment plants.
  • Not dumping the dead animals into the water bodies.

Land Pollution

Land pollution is caused by:

  • Throwing the waste openly on lands.
  • Fertilizers, pesticides and other harmful chemicals.
  • Wastes from Thermal power plants, mining, leather, rubber industries etc.

Land pollution can be controlled by:

  • Managing the garbage in a better way.
  • Reducing the use of poisonous chemicals and practicing organic farming.
  • Proper waste management from the industries etc.

Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is caused by:

  • Excessive levels of noise from loud music, honking etc.
  • High speed aircraft.
  • Industries with heavy machinery etc.

Noise pollution can be controlled by:

  • Reducing the loud music and avoiding unnecessary honking.
  • Following the guidelines for noise levels.
  • Controlling the noise near the sensitive areas like jungles, hospitals, schools etc.

Radioactive Pollution

Radioactive pollution is caused by:

  • Release of radioactive substances into the environment.
  • Nuclear testing of weapons, explosions and nuclear weapon production.
  • Mining and handling of radioactive materials.

Radioactive pollution can be controlled by:

  • Proper waste management of radioactive wastes from the power plants.
  • Reducing the use of nuclear weapons.
  • Keeping the extra safety measures in the industries related to radio active materials.

Light Pollution is another type of pollution which is caused by excessive and unwanted use of light during the night time.

  • Light pollution changes the natural conditions of atmosphere and environment.
  • Sensible and controlled use of light helps in controlling the light pollution.


Anything that is not useful anymore is called waste material. It can be anything like empty refills, used disposable glasses, old notebooks, parcel packaging, wrappers of food items, rotten vegetables, broken old USB cables etc.

Types of wastes

Biodegradable Waste: Materials that rot and mix up into the soil with the time.
Examples – Waste from the animals and plants.

Non-Biodegradable Waste: Materials that don’t rot and mix up into the soil with the time.
Examples – Broken glass, metal cans, plastics etc.

Why is Waste Management important?

  • All the waste materials are disposed into the dustbins by the households. These waste materials are collected by municipal corporations of a city and dumped outside the city.
  • Disposal of waste materials is a huge concern for the nature. Improper disposal affects the environment in the negative way.
  • Various types of pollution are caused by the improper disposal of waste materials. It also becomes the reason for various diseases.
  • Proper waste management is must for reducing pollution and saving the environment.

How to reduce waste materials?

By following the policy of 4Rs.

  • Refuse: Refusing to use plastics.
  • Reduce: Reduce the over purchase and use of anything.
  • Reuse: Instead of throwing things, reuse the usable things.
  • Recycle: Make other useful things from the waste materials.


The process of keeping the biodegradable waste into a pit for about 2-3 months so that it rots and becomes manure or compost.

  • It is a recycling process of biodegradable waste materials.
  • Manure is used in farming and it is very good for the plants.

How can we contribute to reduce the pollution?

  • By not wasting electricity.
  • By reducing fuel consumption.
  • By managing household waste properly.
  • By reducing the use of fertilizers, pesticides and other harmful chemicals.
  • By going for green energy sources like solar energy, wind energy etc.
  • By creating awareness.
  • By saving paper
  • By more and more planting trees.
Days to remember:

Environment day : 5 June

Earth Day : 22 April

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