Class 6 History Chapter 3 Important Notes

Class 6 History Chapter 3 Important Notes from the chapter – In the earliest cities.

About 150 years ago, while laying the railway lines at Harappa in Punjab in present day Pakistan, Engineers found a mound that was a rich source of ready made, high quality bricks. So they took off thousands of bricks from the walls of the old buildings of the city to build railway lines. Many buildings were completely destroyed.

Around 1920, archaeologists found the site, and realised that this was one of the oldest cities in the subcontinent. These cities developed about 4700 years ago. This was the first city to be discovered from the Indus Valley Civilization, so the it is also called the Harappan Civilization.

Important Sites of the Indus Valley Civilization

Class 6 History Chapter 3 Important Notes
Image Source: https://wikipedia.org
Class 6 History Chapter 3 Important Notes

Harappa
> Located at the bank of Ravi river in Punjab, Pakistan.
> Discovered in 1921.
> Discovered by Daya Ram Sahni.

Mohenjo-Daro
> Located at the bank of Indus river in Sind, Pakistan.
> Discovered in 1922.
> Discovered by R D Banerjee.

Chanhu-Daro
> Located at the bank of Indus river in Sind, Pakistan.
> Discovered in 1931.
> Discovered by N G Majumdar.

Kalibangan
> Located at the bank of Ghaggar river in Rajasthan, India.
> Discovered in 1953.
> Discovered by Amol Anand Ghosh.

Lothal
> Located at the bank of Bhogava river near the Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat, India.
> Discovered in 1953.
> Discovered by R. Rao.

Dholavira
> Located at the bank of river Luni, near Rann of Kutch in Gujarat, India.
> Discovered in 1985.
> Discovered by R S Bisht.


#Class 6 History Chapter 3 Important Notes

Important Features of the Cities

Structure of the cities
> Many of these cities were divided into two or more parts.
> One part to west – smaller but higher = Citadel
> Other part to the east – larger but lower = Lower Town
> Walls of baked brick were built around each part.
> Towns were planned as per a grid system.

Houses and Streets
> Buildings were constructed with strong well baked bricks laid in inter-locking patterns.
> Either one or two storeys buildings with rooms built around a courtyard.
> Separate bathing area and Wells to supply water.
> Covered drains with inspection holes.
> Smaller drains were connected to bigger ones.

Life of People in the Cities

Cities had busy lives as people were engaged in various activities.

  • Some people, probably the rulers, were engaged in planning the towns.
  • Some people travelled distant places to get variety of materials.
  • Some people made jewelry and ornaments of gold and silver.
  • Scribes were the people did the reading and writing works.
  • Craft persons made variety of things from metals, clay, terracotta, etc.

People is the areas near to the cities were engaged in agricultural activities.

Class 6 History Chapter 3 Important Notes
Terracotta Toys
Class 6 History Chapter 3 Important Notes

Crafts in the Cities

Most of the things that have been found by archaeologists are made of stone, shell and metal, including copper, bronze, gold and silver.

Many of these works were done by the specialists who were trained to do only one kind of work.

  • Copper and bronze were used to make tools, weapons, ornaments and vessels.
  • Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels.
  • Beads, weights, and blades were made of special type of stones.
  • Pots with beautiful black designs were also made.
  • Spindle whorls were made of terracotta (Baked Clay) and faience (Chinese Clay).
  • Seals were made of stones, terracotta, etc.
  • Sealings were made of clay.

# Class 6 History Chapter 3 Important Notes

Sources of Raw Materials

Raw materials are natural substances (like wood, minerals, etc.) or produced by farmers, herders, etc. Raw materials are used to make other goods.

  • Cotton was the raw material for making clothes and it was produced by the farmers.
  • Copper was brought from present day Rajasthan and Oman.
  • Tin was brought from Afghanistan and Iran.
  • Gold might have come from Karnataka.
  • Precious Stones were brought from Gujarat, Iran, Afghanistan.

Class 6 History Chapter 3 Question Answers

Class 6 History Chapter 3 Extra Question Answers

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