Structure of Government in India

In this post, you will learn about the definition of government, levels of the government, various parts of government, details about the local government, municipal councils, gram panchayat, and Panchayati Raj System.

What is Government?

A system that looks after a particular area like country, state, city, village, etc.

There are three parts of government.

  1. Legislative – Making of laws, policies, or plans.
  2. Executive – Implementing the laws, policies, or plans.
  3. Judicial – Protects the laws and dispenses justice.

What are the levels of Government?

There are three levels (tiers) of government in India.
  1. Central or Union Government
  2. State Government
  3. Local Government

Central Government

  • Legislative – Parliament (Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, and President)
  • Executive – Cabinet or Council of Ministers (headed by the Prime Minister)
  • Judicial – Supreme Court


State Government

  • Legislative – State Legislative Assembly and Members of Legislative Assembly (MLA)
  • Executive – Council of Ministers (Headed by Chief Minister)
  • Judicial – State High Courts

Why do we have three levels of Government in India?

It is not possible for a single government to look after a huge country like India. A single government can’t properly govern a large area. So we have three levels in the government.

Levels of Government
Levels of Government in India

What are the forms of Local Government?

There are two forms of Local government.
  1. Rural Administration (Panchayati Raj System)
  2. Urban Administration (Municipal Governance)


What are the levels of Rural Administration?


There are three levels of Rural Administration.
  1. Gram Panchayat
  2. Block Panchayat (Panchayat Samiti)
  3. Zilla Panchayat (Zilla Parishad)

What are the types of Urban Administration?

There are various levels based on the size and population of the urban area.
  1. Nagar Panchayats (for smaller towns)
  2. Municipal Councils (for small towns)
  3. Municipalities (for cities – generally population between 1 – 10 lakhs)
  4. Municipal Corporations (for big cities – population of more than 1 million)

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