NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes

Maps and their importance

A map is drawing of the Earth’s surface or part of the Earth on a flat surface. A map can be drawn for a village, city, state, country or the full earth. An atlas is a collection of various types of maps.

➤ A map is more informative than a globe.
➤ It is easy to carry.
➤ A map is more useful when we want to study part of the Earth.

Types of Map

Physical MapsMaps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are called physical or relief maps.
Political MapsMaps showing cities, towns and villages, and different countries and states of the world with their boundaries are called political maps.
Thematic MapsMaps containing specific information on various themes are called thematic maps. For example, road maps, rainfall maps, maps of forests, industries, etc.
NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes

Elements of a map

Elements are used to make a map more informative and meaningful. Map scale, directions, symbols, colors, legend, title, etc. are some important elements.

Map ScaleMap scale are used to provide the information on the reduction of size.
DirectionsGenerally, North direction is shown pointing towards the top of the map.
SymbolsActual shape and size of different features such as buildings, roads, bridges, trees, railway lines, etc. are shown by symbols. These symbols make maps more informative and meaningful.
ColorsVarious colors are used to explain map features.
LegendLegend of map is a short description of the symbols used on the map.
TitleTitle describes the theme or subject of a map.
NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes
NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes
Map elements. (Source)
NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes

Types of Map Scales

Small scale map is used when map is drawn for larger areas. A large actual distance is represented by a distance on the map.
Example: 2 cm = 500 km

Large scale map is used when map is drawn for smaller areas. A smaller actual distance is represented by a distance on the map.
Example: 2 cm = 500 m

There are various ways of representing map scale, such as Linear Scale, Ratio Scale, Verbal Scale.

Ratio Scale = Distance on map : Actual distance on ground
or
Ratio Scale = Distance on map/Actual distance on ground

NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes
Linear or Bar Scale of a map

Cardinal Directions and Intermediate Directions

There are two types of directions:
(1) Cardinal Directions (North, East, South, West)
(2) Ordinal or Intermediate Directions (NW, NE, SE, SW, etc.)

NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes
Directions. (Source)
NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes

Color Notations used on maps

Various colors are used to make the maps more informative. Below are some commonly followed notation.

Deep Water BodiesDark Blue
Shallow Water BodiesLight Blue
High MountainsDark Brown
HillsLight Brown
PlateausYellow
PlainsGreen
NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes
Conventional Symbols

To make a map readable by everyone, there is an international agreement to use some common symbols. The symbols that have same meaning throughout the world are called conventional symbols.

Map vs Sketch vs Plan

MapSystematic drawing of the Earth or its parts with a proper scale.
SketchSketch is rough drawing without a scale. Sketch is memory based drawing just to indicate various places.
PlanA Plan is detailed drawing of a small area with large scale. Detailed information like lengths, widths, etc. are shown in plans.
NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes

Also Read:
NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Question Answers

NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions

NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Online Test