NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 8 Notes cover all the topics in a simplified and precise way. NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 8 Notes are easy to understand and learn for exams. NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 8 Notes are helpful for a quick revision of the chapter – Vital Villages and Thriving Towns.

NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 8 Notes

NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 8 Notes

Iron Tools
>The use of Iron began about 3000 years in the subcontinent.
>Iron was used for making tools and weapons.
>Use of Iron ploughshare was very useful in agriculture about 2500 years ago.

Major Changes in Agriculture
These changes in agriculture increased production.
(1) Transplantation of Paddy
(2) Iron Ploughshare
(3) Irrigation by canals, wells, tanks, and artificial lakes.

Stages in the construction of irrigation works
1. Kings need money for armies, palaces, forts.
2. They demand taxes from farmers.
3. Farmers have to increase production to pay taxes.
4. This is possible with irrigation.
5. Kings provide money and plan irrigation works.
6. Labour is provided by the people.
7. Production increases.
8. Revenue also increases.
9. Farmers also benefit because crop production is more certain.
Types of People who Lived in Villages

(1) Landowners (Big Farmers)
(2) Ordinary Ploughmen (Small farmers)
(3) Landless Labourers (Kammakaras)
(4) Slaves (Dasas and Dasis)
Other than these people, craftspersons also lived in the villages.

Tamil Words for these people
Landowners – Vellalar
Ordinary Ploughmen – Ujhavar
Landless Labourers – Kadaisiyar
Slaves – Adimai

North Indian Villages
>Generally, the Largest landowner was also the village headman (Gram Bhojaka).
>The Post of Gram Bhojaka was hereditary.
>Other independent farmers were known as Grihapatis.

Sangam Literature
>Some of the earliest Tamil literature is known as Sangam Literature.
>Composed about 2300 years ago.
>Composed and compiled in Assemblies (Sangams) of poets in the city of Madurai.

Finding out about cities

(1) Jatak Stories
>Composed by ordinary people.
>Written down and preserved by Buddhist monks.

(2) Sculptures
>Used to decorate railings, pillars, and gateways of buildings that were visited by people.

(3) Archaeological evidence
>Ringwells, Punch-marked coins, Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW), etc.
>Ringwells were the rows of pots, or ceramic rings arranged one on top of the other. These ring wells might have been used as toilets, drainage or garbage dumps.
>Punch Marked Coins were stamped with symbols using dies or punches. Hence, they are called punch-marked coins.
>NBPW is a hard, wheel-made, metallic-looking ware with a shiny black surface.

(4) Account of Sailors or Travellers
>Description of ports or palaces visited by them.

Types of People Who lived in cities

(1) Officials
(2) Merchants
(3) Craftspersons – Goldsmiths, Blacksmiths, Weavers, Basketmakers, Garland makers, Perfumers, etc.

>Associations of merchants and traders.
>Shrenis of crafts persons provided training, procured raw material, and distributed the finished product.
>Shrenis of merchants organized the trade.
>Shrenis also served as banks.

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