NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 10 Extra Questions

NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 10 Extra Questions

1. Name the three states that were carved out of the old Mughal provinces in the 18th century.
Answer
: Bengal, Awadh, and Hyderabad.

2. How was Awadh important geographically and economically?
Answer
: Awadh was a prosperous region as it was controlling the rich alluvial Ganga plains.
Awadh was situated on the main trade route between North India and Bengal.

3. What were Chauth and Sardeshmukhi?
Answer
: Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were the taxes levied by the Marathas.
Chauth was 25% of the land revenue collected by the Zamindars.
Sardeshmukho was 9-10% of the land revenue paid to the head revenue collector.

4. How did the invasion by Nadir Shah in 1739 affected Delhi?
Answer
: Iranian ruler Nadir Shah raided and plundered immense amount of wealth from Delhi.
As a result,
> The Mughal treasure was empty.
> The wealthy became beggars.
> Shahjahanabad turned into rubble.
> There was chaos everywhere.
Delhi turned into a deserted place. Delhi, once so rich, became poor after Nadir Shah looted it.

5. What types of new regional kingdoms emerged after the death of Aurangzeb?
Answer
:
(1) Old Mughal Provinces (Bengal, Awadh, Hyderabad)
(2) Watan Jagirs of the Rajputs
(3) New Independent States (by Sikhs, Marathas, Jats)

6. What were the factors responsible the for the decline of the Mughals?
Answer
: The Factors responsible for the Decline of the Mughals:
(1) Depletion of military strength and Financial resources by Aurangzeb by fighting a long war in Deccan.
(2) Reckless assignment of Jagirs by Aurangzeb.
(3) Inefficient administration after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707.
(4) Incapabilities of the later Mughals.
(5) Gradual shifting of political, economic, and military into the hands of Provincial Governors, Nobles, Local Chieftains, etc.
(6) Rebellions of the Peasants and Zamindars.
(7) Plundering of wealth by foreign invaders.

7. What were the common features among the Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad kingdoms?
Answer
:
(1) Revenue Farming System (Ijarah System)
(2) Suspicious about the Jagirdari System
(3) Emerging relationship with bankers and moneylenders.

8. Who were the important Sikh leaders and rulers during the 18th century?
Answer
:
Guru Gobind Singh – 10th Sikh Guru and Founder of Khalsa group.
Banda Bahadur – First Sikh military leader to wage an offensive war against the Mughal rulers of India.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh – United Sikh Groups and their rulers and created the Sikh Kingdom in 1799.

9. How were the states of Bengal, Awadh and Hyderabad founded?
Answer
:
These states were founded by the high nobles of the Mughal Empire. These nobles were given the responsibilities (Governorship) of the Mughal provinces. They gradually decreased the Mughal influence and took the control of economic, political and military administration. And when they started taking independent decisions.
Bengal Kingdom was founded by Murshid Quli Khan in 1717.
Awadh Kingdom was founded by Sa’adat Khan in 1722.
Hyderabad Kingdom was founded by Asaf Jah in 1724.

10. How did the Marathas expanded their domination between 1720 and 1761?
Answer
: The Maratha Kingdom was expanded by the Peshwas between 1720 and 1761.
>Malwa and Gujarat Provinces were seized by the Marathas by the 1720s.
>By the 1730s, Maratha King was recognized as the overlord of the Deccan and got the right to collect Chauth and Sardeshmukhi.
>Raided Delhi in 1737.

With the help of powerful armies, The Marathas expanded their domination in:
(1) Rajasthan and Punjab in the North
(2) Bengal, and Orissa in the East
(3) Karnataka and the Tamil and Telugu countries in the South.


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