Any living and non-living things around us known as the environment. Objects, conditions, circumstances all are part of our environment.
Types of environment
(A) Natural Environment
- Biosphere (Humans, Plants, Animals, etc.)
(B) Human-made environment
- Buildings, Bridges, Roads, Parks
- Industries Vehicles etc.
Elements of the Environment
(a) Biotic components: Living organisms like animals, humans, and plants, etc.
(b) Abiotic components: Non-living things like land, water, building, etc.
|Elements of environment|
Natural Elements of the Environment
(Litho – the Greek word for rock or stone and Sphere – a word used for the area)
- Solid crust or top layer of the Earth.
- Made of rocks and minerals.
- Found in the forms of various landforms i.e mountains, plateaus, plains, etc.
(Hydro – the Greek word for water. Similarly Aqua – Latin word for water)
- Part of the Earth that contains water.
- Oceans, Seas, Rivers, Lakes, Ponds, etc.
(Atmos – the Greek word for vapor)
- A thin layer of air around the earth.
- Gravity (Pulling force by earth) keeps the air around the earth.
- The atmosphere protects us from the harmful rays and heat of the sun.
- Everyday changes in the atmosphere are called weather or climate.
(Bio – Life)
- Narrow zone land, water, and air interact with each other.
- The common part of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.
- Humans, Animals, plants, etc are part of the biosphere.
- Sphere of life as all the living components are part of it.
- A System where living and non-living elements of the environment interact with each other.
- The ecosystem is a relation through which the exchange of nutrients and energy takes place in the biosphere.
- Biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.
|Energy flows from bottom to top: Producers to Carnivores|
There can be various ecosystems depending upon the types of living and non-living elements of an area or zone.
Types of Ecosystems
(Class 7 Geography Chapter 1 Important Notes)
1. Forest Ecosystems
- Tropical forest ecosystems
- Temperate forest ecosystems
- Taiga (Boreal) forest ecosystems
2. Grassland Ecosystems
- Tropical grassland ecosystems
- Temperate grassland ecosystems
3. Taiga ecosystems
- Boreal forest ecosystems
4. Desert ecosystems
5. Tundra ecosystems
6. Aquatic ecosystems
- Marine or Seawater ecosystems
- Freshwater ecosystems
The Sum of all the ecosystems established on planet Earth is called the Biosphere.
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