Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes

#Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes. #Living Longer and Healthier Lives


What is Health?

Any person is healthy when there is no illness, disease or sickness. A healthy person also does not have any chances of getting any disease, illness or sickness.
A person can stay healthy if he gets clean water, clean environment, healthy and nutritious food etc.
Earlier disease were considered as the curse of God as the people did not have the cure for the diseases. Now medical science has progressed tremendously and we have cure of diseases.

Medical facilities

  • Medical equipment
  • Thousands of medicines
  • Methods of diagnosis
  • Surgical methods
  • Treatment methods etc.
Let us talk about some of the important facilities of the medical fields.

The Clinical Thermometer

When we fall ill, our body become warmer. It is called as fever. Fever indicates the illness or diseases. Diagnosis of the disease starts with the temperature measurement using clinical thermometers.
  • Temperature is the measure of hotness or coldness of something.
  • Temperature is measured in degree Celsius or degree Fahrenheit.
  • The clinical thermometer was invented by Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit.
Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
Clinical Thermometer.
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The Stethoscope

  • Stethoscope is used to examine our chest and back.
  • Doctors listen to the sounds of heart beats and breathing through the stethoscope.
  • Stethoscope was invented by French scientist Rene Laennec.
Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
A stethoscope
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#Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes


  • A device that magnifies the tiny objects and makes them look much larger.
  • With the help of microscope, we can see things that are too small to see for naked eyes.
  • Zacharias Janseen made the first microscope in about 1590.
  • Microscope made it possible for the scientists to see the germs and find the medicines to kill the germs.
  • Microscopes are used for examining blood, urine etc. to find out the diseases.



These two equipment we discussed examine our body from outside only. Now let us talk about the equipment that examine our body from inside and produces the pictures of our body from inside.
  • X-ray – Takes pictures of our body from inside.
  • Scanners – produces more detailed pictures than X-ray.
  • ultrasound, CAT, MRI etc. are the examples of various scanners.

X-ray (Radiography)

X-rays are used to view images of the bones and other structures in the body.

Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
X-ray generator machine
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#Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes



Ultrasound is used to create images of soft tissue structures, such as the gallbladder, liver, kidneys, pancreas, bladder, and other organs and parts of the body. Sonography is the use of an ultrasound tool for diagnostic purposes.

Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
Ultrasound Process
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#Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes


CAT (CT scan or computed Tomography)

A combination of X-rays and a computer to create pictures of your organs, bones, and other tissues. CT scan is used to diagnose muscle and bone disorders, such as bone tumors and fractures.

Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
CT Scan machine
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#Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes


MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging)

MRI scans are used to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn muscle tear to tumors. MRI is very useful for examining the brain and spinal cord.


Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
MRI machine
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#Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes 

Surgery and Anesthesia

The defective organs of the body are cut open and operated upon. This process is known as surgery.
  • Organs are repaired and/or replaced to cure the diseases.
  • Surgery was very much known in ancient India. Well known surgeon from ancient India is Sushruta.
  • Patients are made unconscious before the surgery so that the patients do not feel the pain. Anesthesia is given to the patients for this purpose.
  • Chloroform was one of the first medicines used for anesthetic purpose.
  • First operation using Chloroform was performed on November 18, 1847.


Germs like Bacteria spread diseases like tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid, leprosy, plaque etc in our body. These diseases are called Bacterial diseases.
  • In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin that could prevent the spread of bacteria.
  • Penicillin was used to cure many bacterial diseases.
  • There are other drugs available along with penicillin and these drugs are called antibiotics.


Vaccines are used to prevent the diseases from occurring. Vaccinated person develops the ability to fight the disease causing germs.
  • The first vaccine was discovered in 1796 by an English doctor Edward Jenner. This vaccine was used to fight smallpox germs.
  • Our world is free of smallpox and the credit is given to him.
  • Other vaccines that are now available to fight the diseases like polio, tuberculosis, hepatitis, cholera, tetanus etc.
  • Our scientists are now trying to find the vaccines for Covid-19, HIV AIDS etc.


 The process of killing the germs by boiling and then rapid cooling is known as pasteurization. Milk, water etc. are boiled to kill the germs that can enter our bodies and spread the diseases.
  • Pasteurisation was discovered by a Frenchman, Louis Pasteur.


Joseph Lister (a surgeon) discovered the first antiseptic about  years ago. Infections can happens to the wounds due to injuries or surgeries. This infection can be controlled by a chemical and it was called an antiseptic.
  • Joseph Lister used Carbolic acid as the antiseptic to clean the instruments, to wash the hands and patients’ skin before the surgeries.

How to stay healthy?

  • Eat nutritious food.
  • Keep your surroundings clean.
  • Keep your body clean.
  • Manage the garbage properly to avoid accumulation of germs and insects.
  • Exercise regularly and make your body capable of fighting the diseases.
  • Get proper treatment in cases of illness.
“Stay Healthy, Stay Happy”
#Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes

Class 5 SST Chapter 5 Chapter 12 Question Answers

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