Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Important Notes

Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Important Notes

Maps and Important Elements of a Map

Globe and maps are used to study the Earth. (Click here to know more about the Globe)
A globe is a small model of the Earth. Although a globe is the most accurate and has an exact shape as the Earth it has some drawbacks as compared to the maps. That is why maps are preferred more than globes.

Comparison of a globe and a map

  • Globe is difficult to carry everywhere. Maps can be rolled and carried around.
  • It is not possible to see all the places on the Earth’s surface at the same but in maps, it is possible to see all the places altogether.
  • Globe does not show detailed information but maps can show detailed information.
  • Globe represents the whole earth but maps can be prepared even for a city, country, etc.

What is Cartography?

The science of making maps is called cartography. The oldest maps have been prepared about 8000 years ago. The person who makes the maps is called a cartographer.

What is a map?

A map is a drawing of the Earth’s surface or a part of the Earth’s surface. Maps are drawn on flat surfaces such as paper sheets.

Chances of Error in Maps

Since the Earth is round and maps are flat. So there are always chances of error in drawing the maps.
Chances of errors are more if we make the maps of larger areas and fewer chances of errors in the maps of smaller places. Maps of bigger places will have more chances of errors.

Different Types of Maps

  1. Political Maps
    Shows the boundaries of the countries, states, or cities.

    Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Important Notes
    A Political Map of India
    Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Important Notes
  2. Physical Maps
    Shows natural features of the land such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, etc.

    Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Important Notes
    A Physical Map of India
    Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Important Notes
  3. Thematic Maps
    A special type of maps that show a particular theme connected with a specific geographic area, such as temperature variation, rainfall distribution, or population density.

A book of maps is called an Atlas. An atlas contains different types of maps.

What is a Wall Map?

A large map designed and hung upon the wall of a room. It is easy to read the wall maps.

Elements of a map

Elements are the additional information used in the maps so that the map is more informative and easy to read.
  • Directions
  • Scale
  • Colour
  • Symbols

Directions in a Map

There are four cardinal directions and four ordinal directions.
Cardinal Directions
  • North (N)
  • East (E)
  • West (W)
  • South (S)
Ordinal Directions
  • North-East (NE)
  • North-West (NW)
  • South-East (SE)
  • South-West (SW)
Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Important Notes
Cardinal and Ordinal Directions
Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Important Notes

Generally, maps are drawn with north at the top and marked by N. and then we can figure out the other directions.

Scale of a Map

Maps are smaller drawings of the larger places. Distances are reduced as compared to the actual distances. The value by which the distances are reduced or increased in the maps is called the scale of the map.
Scale is the ratio between the distance on the map and the actual distance on the earth’s surface.
 
Scale = (Distance on map: actual distance on the Earth’s surface)
 
Example,
If 500 km distance is represented by 5 cm on a map then the scale of the map will be (5 cm: 500 km)

How to show the scale on a map?

The scale of a map is shown as a line with distance marked on it. When Each division of the line represents the same distance then it is called a linear scale.
 
When each division of the line represents different distance values it is called a non-linear scale.

Colors in a map

Standard colors are used to show features such as mountains, plains, plateaus, oceans, etc.
  • Dark Blue – Deepwater bodies like oceans.
  • Light Blue – Shallow (less deep) water bodies.
  • Dark Brown – High Mountains
  • Light Brown – Lower mountains and hills
  • Yellow – Plateaus
  • Green – Plain areas and low lands.

Symbols on a Map

A symbol is a shape or sign that is used to represent something. Standard symbols are used to show specific features and places on a map.
In the places of writing the words, symbols are used to make a map more clean and easy to understand.
Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Important Notes
Standard Symbols used in a map.
Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Important Notes
Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Important Notes

Also read:
Class 5 SST Chapter 1 Important Notes

Class 5 SST Chapter 1 Question Answers

Class 5 SST Chapter 2 Question Answers

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