#Class 5 SST Chapter 4 Important Notes #Climate and Weather #Weather vs Climate
What is atmosphere?
The thin layer of air around the Earth is called the atmosphere. The temperature, pressure, and density of the gases change at different locations in the atmosphere. Changes in the temperature, pressure, density, etc. cause the changes in weather and climate at the places on the Earth.
Weather vs Climate?
The conditions of the atmosphere at a particular place and time are called the weather of that place. Weather can be hot or cold, rainy or dry, clear or cloudy, sunny or dark, humid, etc.
The average weather conditions of a place for a long period of time are called the climate of that place.
How are the lives of people affected by climate?
Climate affects our lives in a big way. We make our houses according to climate. Our food, clothes and many activities are affected by the climate of our place.
Different parts of the Earth receive different amounts of heat from the Sun.
When the sun rays are direct and vertical, they will heat the area more.
When the sun rays are slanting, they will fall on a larger area. Slanting rays have to travel longer to reach the earth. Hence the heating of these areas will be less.
Depending upon the amount of heat received by the areas, The Earth can be divided into three heat zones or climatic zones.
Torrid Zone (Also called the Tropical Zone)
Heat Zone of the Earth. Class 5 SST Chapter 4 Important Notes
The area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn is called the Torrid Zone or the Tropical Zone.
The word ‘Torrid’ means extremely hot. This zone receives the maximum amount of heat from the Sun. So it is hot throughout the year.
The area between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere and between the Antarctic Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere is called the Temperate Zone.
This zone receives a moderate amount of heat. So the climate of this zone is neither very hot nor very cold. It is pleasant most of the time.
The area between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere and between the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole in the Southern Hemisphere is called the Frigid Zone.
This zone receives very little amount of heat from the Sun. So the climate of this zone is very cold throughout the year.
(Class 5 SST Chapter 4 Important Notes)
Height Above Sea Level
As we go up at some height from the sea level, temperature decreases. So the Climate becomes cooler with the height.
This is the reason we have a cooler climate in the hill stations.
Distance From The Sea
The heating and cooling of land is slower as compared to water. Water gets heated and cooled faster. So the places near the seawater are warmer in winter and cooler in summer than the places far away from the sea.
The sea breeze will make the place cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter. Hence, the places near the sea will have a pleasant climate.
Winds may be hot, cold, dry, humid. It depends upon the areas from where the winds are coming.
So different types of winds will affect the climate of any place.
If the winds carry moisture, then they bring the rain to the place. Similarly hot or cold winds will make the climate warmer or cooler.
The amount of moisture present in the air is called humidity. Hot areas which are near the sea will have more evaporation of water than the other places. So the hot areas near the sea are more humid and the other areas have very little humidity.