Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 12 Notes

Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 12 Notes. #Living Longer and Healthier Lives

What is Health?

Any person is healthy when there is no illness, disease, or sickness. A healthy person also does not have any chance of getting any disease, illness, or sickness.

A person can stay healthy if he gets clean water, a clean environment, healthy and nutritious food, etc.

In the past, diseases were considered the curse of God as the people did not have a cure for the diseases. Now medical science has progressed tremendously and we have cures for diseases.

We have various equipment to diagnose diseases and a variety of medicines for treatment.

Medical facilities

> Medical equipment
> Thousands of medicines
> Methods of diagnosis
> Surgical methods
> Treatment methods etc.

 Let us talk about some of the important facilities in the medical field.

Clinical Thermometer

Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
Clinical Thermometer. (Source)
Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 12 Notes

The normal temperature for Human Body is 37°C or 98.6°F. Whenever we fall ill, our bodies become warmer. It is called fever.

Fever indicates an illness or disease. Diagnosis of the disease starts with temperature measurement using clinical thermometers.

> Temperature is the measure of the hotness or coldness of something.
> Temperature is measured in degree Celsius or degrees Fahrenheit.
> The clinical thermometer was invented by Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit.


> A stethoscope is used to examine our chest and back.
> Doctors listen to the sounds of heartbeats and breathing through the stethoscope.
> Stethoscope was invented by French scientist Rene Laennec.

Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
Stethoscope. (Source)
Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 12 Notes


> A device that magnifies tiny objects and makes them look much larger.
> With the help of a microscope, we can see things that are too small to see for the naked eyes.
> Zacharias Janssen made the first microscope in about 1590.
> Microscopes made it possible for scientists to see the germs and find the medicines to kill the germs.
> Microscopes are used for examining blood, urine, etc. to find out diseases.

Microscope. (Source)
Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 12 Notes


The clinical thermometer, stethoscope, etc. examine our bodies from the outside. There are some types of equipment that examine our body from the inside and produce pictures of our body from the inside.

X-ray (Radiology) is used to view images of the bones and other structures in the body.

Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
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Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 12 Notes
Ultrasound is used to create images of soft tissue structures, such as the gallbladder, liver, kidneys, pancreas, bladder, and other organs and parts of the body. Sonography is the use of an ultrasound tool for diagnostic purposes.

Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
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Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 12 Notes
CAT (CT scan or computed tomography) is a combination of X-rays and a computer to create pictures of your organs, bones, and other tissues. CT scan is used to diagnose muscle and bone disorders, such as bone tumors and fractures.

Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
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Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 12 Notes
MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) scans are used to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn muscle tears to tumors. MRI is very useful for examining the brain and spinal cord.

Class 5 SST Chapter 12 Important Notes
Picture source:
Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 12 Notes

Surgery and Anesthesia

The defective organs of the body are cut open and operated upon. This process is known as surgery.

> Organs are repaired and/or replaced to cure diseases.
> Surgery was very much known in ancient India. A well-known surgeon from ancient India is Sushruta.
> Patients are made unconscious before the surgery so that the patients do not feel the pain. Anesthesia is given to the patients for this purpose.
> Chloroform was one of the first medicines used for anesthetic purposes.
> The first operation using Chloroform was performed on November 18, 1847.


Germs like Bacteria spread diseases like tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid, leprosy, plaque, etc. in our body. These diseases are called Bacterial diseases.

> In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin that could prevent the spread of bacteria.
> Penicillin was used to cure many bacterial diseases.
> There are other drugs available along with penicillin and these drugs are called antibiotics.


Vaccines are used to prevent diseases from occurring. A vaccinated person develops the ability to fight the disease-causing germs.

> The first vaccine was discovered in 1796 by an English doctor Edward Jenner. This vaccine was used to fight smallpox germs.
> Our world is free of smallpox and the credit is given to him.
> Other vaccines that are now available to fight the diseases like polio, tuberculosis, hepatitis, cholera, tetanus, etc.
> Our scientists are now trying to find the vaccines for Covid-19, HIV AIDS, etc.


The process of killing the germs by boiling and then rapid cooling is known as pasteurization. Milk, water, etc. are boiled to kill the germs that can enter our bodies and spread the diseases.

> Pasteurization was discovered by a Frenchman, Louis Pasteur.


Joseph Lister (a surgeon) discovered the first antiseptic about years ago. Infections can happen to the wounds due to injuries or surgeries. This infection can be controlled by a chemical and it was called an antiseptic.

> Joseph Lister used Carbolic acid as the antiseptic to clean the instruments, and to wash the hands and patients’ skin before the surgeries.

How to stay healthy?

> Eat nutritious food.
> Keep your surroundings clean.
> Keep your body clean.
> Manage the garbage properly to avoid the accumulation of germs and insects.
> Exercise regularly and make your body capable of fighting diseases.
> Get proper treatment in cases of illness.

#Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 12 Notes

Class 5 SST Chapter 5 Chapter 12 Question Answers