Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 13 Notes from the Age of Machines. Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 13 Notes covers all the topics in a simplified and precise way.
The Age of Machines
The time in which we are living is called the age of machines because our lives are totally dependent on machines and machines have become an integral part of our lives.
A machine is a tool that makes our life easier and life without machines is very difficult.
Early Stone Tools
Millions of years ago, humans did not have these machines and they were dependent on simple stone tools made by themselves as per their skills. These stone tools were used for hunting.
It took thousands of years for developing tools made of metals. But last few hundreds of years have seen rapid growth in technology and there have been so many machines invented during this time.
Discovery of Metals
|Copper||The first metal to be discovered about 8000 years ago in Asia.|
|Bronze||Bronze was made by mixing copper and tin about 6000 years ago.|
It was harder than copper.
|Iron||Iron was the next to be discovered.|
Iron was harder than bronze.
Iron tools were used to cut down the tree and clear forests for agriculture.
It was easier to hunt the animals with iron tools.
Iron tools helped humans grow faster.
Invention of Wheels, Carts and Boats
> The wheel was invented about 5500 years ago.
> Carts with wheels fitted were started to be used about 5000 years ago.
> Initially, carts were pulled by the humans but later animals were used to pull these carts.
> Humans started using rafts (early boats) about 10000 years ago.
> Later humans used the force of the wind and made sailboats.
> Watermills were also among the important machines that were used in ancient times.
The Steam Engine and The Industrial Revolution
Till the seventeenth century, humans used the power of their own muscle power, animals, the force of the wind, and the force of the flowing water. About 300 years, there was a very important invention that revolutionized the industries. The efficient and practical engine was invented by James Watt in 1769. It made it possible to run the big machines with the help of steam engines.
> Goods could be produced in large quantities in the industries.
> The goods became cheaper and better in quality.
> People started using more goods and demand for the goods increased.
> This increased demand led to the factory system where goods could be manufactured at a large scale.
> More people were employed in the factories and people moved from villages to the cities.
> Cities grew bigger in size.
> Many changes in the economy, society, and culture started to happen.
> This significant change from handmade goods to machine-made goods began in Britain in the 18th century. This change is known as the industrial revolution.
Conventional Sources of Energy
|Coal||First fuel to be used in steam engines to produce steam.|
Coal is obtained from the mines.
Coal is still an important source of energy for us and is used to generate electricity.
Coal is formed from the dead trees millions of years ago.
Coal is limited and it would last for only about 250 years.
|Petroleum||Another source of energy is found deep inside the Earth.|
Petrol, kerosene, diesel etc. are taken out of petroleum.
Engines running on petrol and diesel are better than steam engines. So the petrol and diesel engines have replaced the steam engines in the machines and automobiles.
Petroleum is also limited and will exhaust in about 100 years.
|Electricity||Alessandro Volta was the first person the make a battery that could produce an electric current.|
With time, generators were invented which could produce electricity.
Petrol, diesel, coal, natural gas etc. are used to run the generators and produce electricity.
Hydroelectricity is produced by constructing dams on the flowing rivers.
Alternative Sources of Energy
Conventional fuels are limited and they also cause pollution. Therefore the development of other sources of energy is very important.
Atomic energy, Solar energy, Wind energy, hydroelectricity, etc. are the alternative sources that can be used more and more in the future.