Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 18 Notes cover all the topics in a simplified and precise way. Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 18 Notes are easy to understand and learn for exams. Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 18 Notes help is a quick revision of the chapter The British Raj and the First War of Independence.
Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 18 Notes
India was a very rich country and it was called the golden sparrow. Arab and European traded with India through land routes.
Sea Route to India
>Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama discovered the sea route to India in 1498.
>He traveled around Africa and landed in Calicut, Kerala.
>The Portuese started trading with India.
>They mainly traded in spices.
Soon, Dutch, French, English traders started the trade with India through the sea route.
English East India Company
>The British traders formed the English East India Company in 1600 for trading in India.
>There was competition among these traders and they started fighting against each other.
>British traders defeated other traders and took the control of trade in India.
>They bought spices and textile from India and sold them in Britain.
>European traders established trade centers on the western and eastern coasts.
>These trade centers were also called factories.
>The officials who bought and sold goods were known as factors.
British Control over India
>The British were satisfied with only trade in India.
>Soon, they became interested in controlling India.
>They started interfering in Indian politics.
>The Mughal power was declining and regional kingdoms were constantly fighting against each other.
>The British took the advantage of the situation and took the control of India.
The Battle of Plassey (1757)
>>The British defeated the Bengal Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah in the Battle of Plassey in 1757.
>>Mir Jafar betrayed Siraj-ud-Daulah and helped the British.
Discontent among Indians
|>Farmers were forced to grow cotton and indigo which was the raw material for the British industries.|
>The British purchased cotton and indigo at a very low price.
>The Indian farmers became poorer.
|>British traders were selling quality cloth at a cheaper price in India.|
>Indian handloom weavers and traders suffered losses.
>Traders and weavers became poorer.
|>The British made many unjust and unfair laws.|
>If any ruler died without a child, his kingdom was taken over by the British.
>This law made Indian rulers very angry.
Many Indians were angry and dissatisfied with British rule. This became the reason for the revolt of 1857.
The Revolt of 1857
>Indian soldiers in the British army were very angry when they were given new rifles.
>In these new rifles, soldiers had to bite off the ends of cartridges.
>These cartridges were greased with the fat of cows and pigs.
>Hindu soldiers were very angry as cows are sacred for the Hindus.
>Muslim soldiers were very angry as pigs are very dirty animals in Islam.
>Mangal Pandey was an Indian Hindu Soldier who attacked the British Official on 29 March 1857.
>Mangal Pandey was hanged on 8 April 1857.
>Indian soldiers in Meerut shot down their officers and took over Meerut.
>These soldiers marched to Delhi and persuaded Bahadur Shah Zafar to lead the revolt.
>The revolt rapidly spread to other parts of India.
>Nana Saheb, Tatya Tope, Rani Lakshmi Bai, Begum Hazrat Mahal were some of the prominent leaders of the revolt.
Reasons for the failure of the Revolt of 1857
(1) Superior army and weapons.
(2) Lack of unity among Indians.
(3) Many Indians sided with the British in the revolt.
Results of the Revolt of 1857
(1) The rule of the East India Company ended and the British Government took direct control of India.
(2) A Viceroy was appointed in India to rule on the behalf of the British Government.
Although the revolt was crushed by the British, it inspired many Indians. They realized that if they stood united, they could defeat the British and gain independence.
Since this revolt was the first attempt to fight against the British, thus it is also known as the First War of Independence.