Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 2 Notes

Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 2 Notes include key concepts related to the chapter maps from New Getting Ahead with Social Studies. Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 2 Notes covers all the topics in a simplified and precise way.

What is a map?

A map is a drawing of the Earth’s surface or a part of the Earth’s surface. Maps are drawn on flat surfaces such as paper sheets. Maps are also used to study the Earth.

A globe is a small model of the Earth. Although a globe is the most accurate and has an exact shape as the Earth it has some drawbacks as compared to the maps. That is why maps are preferred more than globes.

The science of making maps is called cartography. The oldest maps have been prepared about 8000 years ago. The person who makes the maps is called a cartographer.

Comparison of a globe and a map

Globe is difficult to carry everywhere. Maps can be rolled and carried around.
It is not possible to see all the places on the Earth’s surface at the same but in maps, it is possible to see all the places altogether.
Globe does not show detailed information but maps can show detailed information.
Globe represents the whole earth but maps can be prepared even for a city, country, etc.

Chances of Error in Maps

Since the Earth is round and maps are flat. So there are always chances of error in drawing the maps. Chances of errors are more if we make the maps of larger areas and fewer chances of errors in the maps of smaller places. Maps of bigger places will have more chances of errors.

Types of Maps

Physical MapShows natural features of the land such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, etc.
Political MapShows the boundaries of the countries, states, or cities.
Thematic MapA special type of map that shows a particular theme connected with a specific geographic area, such as temperature variation, rainfall distribution, or population density.
Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 2 Notes

A book of maps is called an Atlas. An atlas contains different types of maps.

A Wall map is a large map that is designed and hung upon the wall of a room. It is easy to read the wall maps.

Elements of a map

Elements are the additional information used in the maps so that the map is more informative and easy to read.

(1) Directions
(2) Scale
(3) Colour
(4) Symbols, etc.

Directions in a Map

There are four cardinal directions and four ordinal directions. Generally, maps are drawn with north at the top and marked by N. and then we can figure out the other directions.

Cardinal DirectionsNorth (N)
East (E)
West (W)
South (S)
Ordinal DirectionsNorth-East (NE)
North-West (NW)
South-East (SE)
South-West (SW)
Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 2 Notes
Directions. (Image Source)
Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 2 Notes

The scale of a map

Maps are smaller drawings of the larger places. Distances are reduced as compared to the actual distances. The value by which the distances are reduced or increased in the maps is called the scale of the map.

Scale is the ratio between the distance on the map and the actual distance on the earth’s surface.

Scale = (Distance on map: actual distance on the Earth’s surface)

For example, If 500 km distance is represented by 5 cm on a map then the scale of the map will be (5 cm: 500 km)

What is a Linear Map?

The scale of a map is shown as a line with distance marked on it. When Each division of the line represents the same distance then it is called a linear scale.

Colors in a map

Standard colors are used to show features such as mountains, plains, plateaus, oceans, etc.

Dark BlueDeepwater bodies like oceans and seas.
Light BlueShallow (Less deep) water bodies.
Dark BrownHigh Mountains.
Light BrownLower mountains and hills.
YellowPlateaus
GreenPlain areas and low lands.
Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 2 Notes

Symbols on a Map

A symbol is a shape or sign that is used to represent something. Standard symbols are used to show specific features and places on a map.   In the places of writing the words, symbols are used to make a map more clean and easy to understand.


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