Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 4 Notes from chapter climate. Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 4 Notes covers all the topics in a simplified and easy-to-understand way.
What is atmosphere?
The thin layer of air around the Earth is called the atmosphere. The temperature, pressure, and density of the gases change at different locations in the atmosphere. Changes in the temperature, pressure, density, etc. cause changes in weather and climate at the places on the Earth.
Difference between weather and climate
The conditions of the atmosphere at a particular place and time are called the weather of that place. Weather can be hot or cold, rainy or dry, clear or cloudy, sunny or dark, humid, etc.
The average weather conditions of a place for a long period of time are called the climate of that place.
Effects of climate on people
Climate affects our lives in a big way. We make our houses according to climate. Our food, clothes and many activities are affected by the climate of our place.
Factors affecting the climate of a place
(1) Distance from the Equator
(2) Height above sea level
(3) Distance from the sea
(5) Amount of moisture in the air (humidity)
|1. Distance from the Equator|
Different parts of the Earth receive different amounts of heat from the Sun.
When the Sun rays are direct and vertical, they will heat the area more.
When the sun rays are slanting, they will fall on a larger area. Slanting rays have to travel longer to reach the earth. Hence the heating of these areas will be less.
|2. Height Above Sea Level|
As we go up at some height from the sea level, temperature decreases. So the Climate becomes cooler with the height.
This is the reason we have a cooler climate in the hill stations.
|3. Distance From The Sea|
The heating and cooling of land is slower as compared to water. Water gets heated and cooled faster. So the places near the seawater are warmer in winter and cooler in summer than the places far away from the sea.
The sea breeze will make the place cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter. Hence, the places near the sea will have a pleasant climate.
Winds may be hot, cold, dry, humid. It depends upon the areas from where the winds are coming. So different types of winds will affect the climate of any place.
If the winds carry moisture, then they bring the rain to the place. Similarly hot or cold winds will make the climate warmer or cooler.
The amount of moisture present in the air is called humidity. Hot areas which are near the sea will have more evaporation of water than the other places. So the hot areas near the sea are more humid and the other areas have very little humidity.
Depending upon the amount of heat received by the areas, The Earth can be divided into three heat zones or climatic zones.
(1) Torrid Zone (Also called the Tropical Zone)
(2) Temperate Zone
(3) Frigid Zone
|Torrid Zone||The area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn is called the Torrid Zone or the Tropical Zone.|
The word ‘Torrid’ means extremely hot. This zone receives the maximum amount of heat from the Sun. So it is hot throughout the year.
The area between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere and between the Antarctic Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere is called the Temperate Zone.
This zone receives a moderate amount of heat. So the climate of this zone is neither very hot nor very cold. It is pleasant most of the time.
The area between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere and between the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole in the Southern Hemisphere is called the Frigid Zone.
This zone receives a little amount of heat from the Sun. So the climate of this zone is very cold throughout the year.