Class 7 History Chapter 4 Important Notes from the chapter – The Mughal Empire.
Ruling the Indian subcontinent with such a diversity of people and cultures was an extremely difficult task. Mughals created an empire and ruled longer than the Delhi Sultans.
Who were the Mughals?
The Mughals were descendants of the Mongols (Genghis Khan) from their mother’s side and of the Timur from their father’s side.
- The Mongol rulers ruled over parts of China and Central Asia. The Mughals did not like to be linked with Mongols because of the massacre of innumerable people.
- Timur ruled present day Iran, Iraq and modern-day Turkey. The Mughals felt proud to be linked with Timurid Dynasty. They celebrated their genealogy pictorially, by getting their pictures with Timur.
Mughal Tradition of Succession
The Mughal followed the custom of coparcenary inheritance. The Mughals did not believe in the Primogeniture custom.
Coparcenary Inheritance – When the wealth is divided among all the sons.
Primogeniture Inheritance – When the wealth is inherited to the eldest son.
#Class 7 History Chapter 4 Important Notes
Important Mughal Rulers
Babur (1526 – 1530)
Founder pf the Mughal Empire in the Indian Subcontinent
- Babur became the ruler of Ferghana in 1494 at the age of 12.
- He was forced to leave Ferghana by the Uzbegs (another Mongol Group).
- After wandering for years, Babur seized Kabul in 1504.
- In 1526, Babur attacked the Delhi Sultanate and defeated the Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi at the battle of Panipat.
- He captured Agra and established the Mughal Empire in the Indian Subcontinent.
- Babur died in 1530.
Important Battles Fought by Babur
- Defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the Battle of Panipat in1526.
- Defeated Rana Sanga in the Battle of Khanua in 1527.
- Defeated the Rajputs in the Battle of Chanderi in 1529.
Humayun (1530 – 40, 1555 – 56)
- After Babur’s death, Humayun became the Mughal Emperor.
- His reign is divided into 2 parts. First, he ruled from 1530 to 1540. then from 1555 to 1556.
- Humayun was defeated by Sher Shah Suri and was forced to fled to Iran.
- Humayun again captured Delhi in 1555 with the help of Safavid Shah of Iran.
- Humayun died in 1556 when he accidently fell off the stairs.
Important Battles Fought by Humayun
- Battle of Chausa, Bihar in 1539 – Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun.
- Battle of Kannuaj, UP in 1540 – Sher Shah Suri again defeated Humayun.
Akbar (1556 – 1605)
- Akbar became emperor in 1556 at the age of 13.
- His rule was divided into 3-parts.
1556-1570: King regent Bairam Khan governed the Mughal Empire because Akbar was too young to rule.
> Military campaigns against the Suris and other Afghans.
> Military campaigns against Malwa and Gondwana.
> Seized Chittor, Rajasthan in 1568.
> Seized Ranthambhore, Rajasthan in 1569.
1570-1585: Akbar took the control of the rule and led many military campaigns.
> Military campaigns to Bihar, Bengal and Orissa.
1585-1605: Akbar expanded the empire by military campaigns to north-west and south.
> Seized Qandahar, Kabul.
> Annexed Kashmir.
> Annexed Berar, Khandesh and Ahmednagar.
- Prince Salim (Jahangir) rebelled against Akbar during the last years of Akbar’s reign.
Jahangir (1605 – 1627)
- Jahangir continued the military campaigns that were started by Akbar.
- Military campaigns against the Sikhs, Ahoms and Ahmednagar.
- Rana Amar Singh of Mewar agreed a peace treaty with Jahangir.
- Mehrunnisa, wife of Jahangir, helped Jahangir in ruling. Mehrunnisa was given the title of Nur Jahan.
- Jahangir was also troubled by the his son Prince Khurram (Shah Jahan).
Shah Jahan (1627 – 1658)
The reign of Shah Jahan is considered the Golden Age of the Mughals.
Many monuments were constructed during his rule.
> Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid at Agra
> Red Fort, Jama Masjid at Delhi,
> Lahore Fort at Lahore, Present day Pakistan.