#Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Important Notes
#Crop Production and Management
Primitive people were hunters and gatherers. They moved from place to place in search of food. Around 10,000 BC, When climate started to change and people slowly started learning to grow crops. They had to lead a settled life to take care of their crops.
India is a vast country with diverse climatic conditions. More then 60% of the population is engaged in agricultural activities.
There is a rich variety of crops grown in different parts of the country.
What is a Crop?
When plants of the same kind are cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called a crop. Different types of crops are cereals, vegetables and fruits.
There are two main types of crops:
(1) Food Crops
(2) Cash Crops
|Kharif Crops||Rabi Crops||Zaid Crops|
|Grown in the Monsoon season.|
(June to September)
|Grown in the winter season.|
(October to March)
|Grown between Rabi and Kharif crops.|
(March to June)
|Rice, Maize, Soybeans, Groundnut, Jowar, Bajra, Pulses, Cotton, Jute, etc.||Wheat, Barley, Gram, Peas, Mustard, Linseed etc.||Seasonal fruits, vegetables, fodder crops etc.|
Crop Production Activities
- Preparation of soil
- Sowing Seeds
- Adding manure and fertilizers
- Protecting from weeds
1. Preparation of Soil
The first step of Soil Preparation is turning and loosening the soil. It is very important for cultivation of crops.
The process of turning and loosening of the soil is called tilling or ploughing.
Ploughing is done with the help of ploughs (wood or iron) and Tractors.
Sometimes, soil may be watered before ploughing if very dry. Sometimes, manure is added to the soil before tiling for proper mixing.
After tiling, Soil is levelled with the help of a leveler. Levelling is beneficial for both sowing and irrigation.
Why is turning and loosening of soil important?
- The loose soil allows the roots to penetrate deep into the soil and breathe easily.
- Turning and loosening of soil brings the nutrient-rich soil to the top so that these nutrients can be utilized by the plants.
- The loosened soil also helps in the growth of earthworms and other microbes which further help in utilization of the nutrients present in the soil.
2. Sowing the Seeds
Selection of good quality and healthy seeds is very important for high yields. Damaged seeds are separated from the healthy seeds.
Traditionally, a funnel like tool was used for sowing the seeds. The seeds are filled into the funnel, passed down through pipes having sharp ends. These ends pierce into the soil and place seeds there.