The United Nations ( संयुक्त राष्ट्र ) is one of the most important organizations in the world. The United Nations works for peace in the world. The United Nations has been successful in preventing World War III and has been continuously fighting against diseases, illiteracy, and poverty. Let us learn about its history and some important points about the United Nations.
Situation after World War I and World War II
- Millions of soldiers and other people were killed and wounded.
- Many cities were completely destroyed. Millions of people suffered due to a shortage of food.
- In WW II, two of the Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were completely destroyed due to the atomic bombs dropped by the USA.
- People of these cities suffered for decades due to this destruction.
Many nations got together to find ways to prevent such terrible wars in the future.
The Inception of the United Nations
- The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945.
- All the rules of the UN were listed down in the Charter of the UN at a conference in San Francisco, USA.
- Initially, 50 countries signed the document.
- At present, 193 countries are members of the UN.
Principles of the United Nations
The principles of the UN are the moral beliefs that the UN follows.
- All the member countries are equal, developed, or underdeveloped.
- All the member countries must obey the charter of the UN.
- Countries must try to resolve their issues peacefully.
- The United Nations will not interfere in the internal matters of any country.
What are the Goals of the United Nations?
The goals or aims are the targets that the UN wants to achieve while following its principles.
- To maintain peace and security among all the nations.
- To develop friendly relations among all the nations.
- To bring equality of rights and freedom for all the people.
- To solve economic and social problems through international cooperation.
- To improve the lives of everyone.
- To fight and eradicate diseases.
- To preserve the environment.
Organs of the United Nations
Various parts of the UN through which the UN works and try to achieve its goals.
- The General Assembly (महासभा)
- The Security Council (सुरक्षा परिषद)
- The Secretariat (सचिवालय)
- The Economic and Social Council (आर्थिक तथा सामाजिक परिषद)
- The International Court of Justice (अंतरराष्ट्रीय न्यायालय)
- The Trusteeship Council (न्यास परिषद)
The General Assembly (UNGA)
The main work of the General Assembly is to meet and discuss various matters.
- The main organ of the UN.
- All 193 member countries participate.
- Each country has one vote.
- Discussions on all matters are held annually.
- Every country can express its opinions, ideas, and suggestions.
- Regular and routine decisions are made with a simple majority. (more than 50%)
- Important matters require a two-thirds majority. (more than 66%)
The Security Council (UNSC)
The Security Council works to maintain peace and to prevent wars in the world.
- The most powerful organ of the UN.
- The Security Council meets if there is a threat to peace or war is about to break out.
- The Security Council also hears the complaints of nations against one another.
- There are 15 members in the Security Council. (5 permanent + 10 non-permanent)
- Permanent members – USA, UK, France, Russia, China.
- Non-permanent members are elected each for 2 years.
- The Security Council discusses and makes decisions that are accepted by all the member countries.
- All 5 permanent members have VETO power i.e. they have the power to overrule or stop any decision.
- To take any decision, all 5 permanent members must agree otherwise decision will be put on hold.
- India is also a member of the Security Council (non-permanent) since 1 January 2021.
- Previously, India has been a member of the UNSC during 1984-85 and 1991-92.