NCERT Class 7 Civics Chapter 8 Notes

NCERT Class 7 Civics Chapter 8 Notes covers all the topics in a simplified and precise way. NCERT Class 7 Civics Chapter 8 Notes are easy to understand and learn for exams.

NCERT Class 7 Civics Chapter 8 Notes

This chapter talks about the complete process starting from the production of cotton and the sale of the shirt through a chain of markets.

Production of cotton
>> Cultivation of cotton requires high levels of inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides.
>> Generally, farmers borrow money to meet these expenses.
>> After toiling hard for months, finally the crop is harvested.
>> Ripon cotton bolls are collected from farms.

Manufacturing of a Shirt
(Ginning > Spinning > Weaving > Stitching)
>> Cotton is sold to local traders and these traders sell cotton to Ginning Mills.
>> Ginning mills clean the cotton and make it into bales.
>> Spinning mills buy cotton and make yarn.
>> Yarn dealers buy yarn from the spinning mills.
>> Yarn dealers give yarn to weavers.
>> Weavers make cloth and return to the dealers.
>> Garment manufacturers buy cloth from the dealers for making shirts.

Sale of a Shirt
>> Manufacturers sell/export shirts Shirts to the retailers.
>> Customers buy shirts from the retailers.

Putting-out Sysytem

A system where a merchant supplies the raw material and receives the finished product.

Weaver’s cooperative

People with common interests come together and work for their mutual benefit. In a weaver’s cooperative, the weavers form a group and take up certain activities collectively. They procure yarn from the yarn dealer and distribute it among the weavers. The cooperative also does the marketing.

So, the role of the merchant is reduced, and weavers get a fair price on the cloth.

Handlooms and Powerlooms

Manually operated looms used for weaving manually by human hands.Driven by steam engines or electric power on which weaving is done automatically.

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