NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 10 Notes cover all the topics in a precise and simplified way. NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 10 Notes are easy to understand and learn for exams. NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 10 Notes are very helpful for a quick revision of the chapter – Eighteenth-Century Political Formations.
NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 10 Notes
Political conditions in the eighteenth century in India changed quite dramatically and within a relatively short span of time (1707-1761).
The Mughal Empire reached the height of its success during the first 6 Mughal Rulers.
>Babur – (1526 – 1530)
>Humayun – (1530 – 1540, 1555-1556)
>Akbar – (1556 – 1605)
>Jehangir – (1605 – 1627)
>Shah Jahan – (1627 – 1658)
>Aurangzeb – (1658 – 1707)
The Mughal Empire started facing a variety of problems at the end of the 17th century during the rule of Aurangzeb.
The Factors responsible for the Decline of the Mughals:
(1) Depletion of military strength and Financial resources by Aurangzeb by fighting a long war in Deccan.
(2) Reckless assignment of Jagirs by Aurangzeb.
(3) Inefficient administration after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707.
(4) Incapabilities of the later Mughals.
(5) Gradual shifting of political, economic, and military into the hands of Provincial Governors, Nobles, Local Chieftains, etc.
(6) Rebellions of the Peasants and Zamindars.
(7) Plundering of wealth by foreign invaders.
>Irani ruler Nadir Shah invaded Delhi in 1739 and looted immense amounts of wealth.
>Afghani ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali plundered North India 5 times between 1748 and 1791.
Groups of Nobles
(1) Turanis Nobles of Turkish origin
(2) Iranian Nobles
There was a competition among the Nobles for political, economic, and military power. And the incapable later Mughal rulers were puppets in the hands of powerful nobles.
The emergence of New States
(1) Old Mughal Provinces
(2) Watan Jagirs of Rajputs
(3) New Independent States
Old Mughal Provinces
These states were founded by Nobles who held high mansabdari. They were governors of large provinces.
|Old Mughal Provinces|
>Murshid Quli Khan was appointed Deputy Governor (Naib Subadar) of Bengal Province.
>He took the control of political and financial administration.
>He reduced the Mughal influence in Bengal Province.
>He founded the Bengal Kingdom in 1717.
>Reassessed the revenue system and adopted a revenue farming system.
>Sa’adat Khan (Burhan-ul-Mulk) was responsible for managing the political, financial, and military affairs of the province of Awadh.
>He founded the Awadh Kingdom in 1722.
>Burhan-ul-Mulk decreased the Mughal influence by decreasing the number of Jagirdars in Awadh.
>He appointed his loyal servants to important positions.
>He adopted the system of “Revenue Farming” (Ijarah System).
>Asaf Jah (Nizam-ul-Mulk) was one of the most powerful members of Farrukh Siyyar’s court.
>He was first given the governorship of Awadh and later given the charge of Deccan.
>He took the control of political and financial administration during 1720-22.
>He founded the Hyderabad Kingdom in 1724.
>Hyderabad state was constantly in a struggle with Marathas and independent warrior chiefs (nayakas).
Common Features among Bengal, Awadh, and Hyderabad
(1) Revenue Farming System (Ijarah System)
(2) Suspicious about the Jagirdari System
(3) Emerging relationship with bankers and moneylenders.
Revenue Farming System
In Revenue Farming System (Ijarah System) had to pay a fixed sum of money to the ruler. Revenue farmers were given considerable freedom in the assessment and collection of taxes.
If Zamindars were not able to pay the fixed amount, They borrowed money from bankers and moneylenders or sold their lands to large zamindars. As a result, the influence of bankers and moneylenders increased in the revenue system. Their political position also improved.
Watan Jagirs of the Rajputs
The Rajputs ruled under the Mughals and had considerable freedom in their homelands (watan jagirs). When the Mughal power declined, the Rajputs tried to extend their control over adjacent areas.
Kingdom of Jodhpur (Marwar)
>Ruled by Ajit Singh.
>Raja Ajit Singh of Jodhpur Kingdom got the governorship of Gujarat.
>Jodhpur also extended its control by conquering and annexing Nagaur.
Kingdom of Amber
>Ruled by Sawai Raja Jai Singh.
>Sawai Raja Jai Singh of Amber Kingdom got the governorship of Malwa.
>Amber also seized a large portion of Bundi (Rajasthan).
>Sawai Raja Jai Singh founded a new capital at Jaipur in 1727.
>Jaipur also got the governorship of Agra in 1722.
Kingdom of Mewar
>The rulers of the Mewar Kingdom did not accept the authority of the Mughals.
When the Rajput Kingdoms were extending their controls, they were challenged by the Marathas.
New Independent States
>The Sikhs became a political power during the 17th century in the Punjab region.
>Guru Gobind Singh fought several battles against the Rajput and Mughal rulers.
>He also founded a group of soldiers called Khalsa in 1699.
>Khalsa was a group of soldiers fighting for their homeland.
>After the death of Guru Gobind Singh in 1708, Banda Bahadur revolted against the Mughals.
>Banda Bahadur declared the independent Sikh rule in the area between rivers Yamuna and Sutlej.
>Banda Bahadur was captured in 1715 and executed in 1716.
>The Sikh territories in the late eighteenth century extended from the Indus to the Jamuna but they were divided under different rulers.
>One of them, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, reunited these groups and established his capital at Lahore in 1799.
>Shivaji (1627-1680) founded the Maratha kingdom with the support of powerful warrior families (Deshmukhs) in 1674.
>Capital of the Maratha Kingdom was at Raigad.
>Very capable Maratha army challenged the Mughals in the Deccan region.
>After Shivaji, the Peshwas (Prime Ministers) led the Maratha Kingdom.
>Poona became the capital of the Marathas.
>The Maratha Kingdom was expanded by the Peshwas between 1720 and 1761.
>Malwa and Gujarat Provinces were seized by the Marathas by the 1720s.
>By the 1730s, Maratha King was recognized as the overlord of the Deccan and got the right to collect Chauth and Sardeshmukhi.
>Raided Delhi in 1737.
>The Jat Kingdom of Bharatpur (Rajasthan) consolidated its political power in the 17th and 18th centuries.
>Under the Jat ruler Churaman, Jats extended their control over territories situated to the west of the city of Delhi.
>By the 1680s they had begun dominating the region between Delhi and Agra.
>Under Suraj Mal the kingdom of Bharatpur emerged as a strong state.
Administration of the Marathas
The Marathas developed an effective administrative system. Agriculture was encouraged and trade revived. The revenue increased the resources of the Marathas. This allowed Maratha chiefs (sardars) like Hokars of Indore, Sindhia of Gwalior, Gaekwad of Baroda, and Bhonsle of Nagpur to raise powerful armies.
With the help of powerful armies, The Marathas expanded their domination in:
(1) Rajasthan and Punjab in the North
(2) Bengal, and Orissa in the East
(3) Karnataka and the Tamil and Telugu countries in the South.
3rd Battle of Panipat
Expansion brought enormous resources, but it came at a price. Other rulers became hostile towards the Marathas and did not help the Marathas in the 3rd battle of Panipat in 1761. The Marathas lost the Battle of Panipat against Ahmad Shah Abdali. (Ahmad Shah Durrani)