NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 2 Notes cover all the important topics in a simplified and precise way. NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 2 Notes are easy to understand ad learn for the exams.

NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 2 Notes

NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 2 Notes

The Emergence of New Dynasties

Rashtrakutas Dynasty
>Founded by Dantidurga.
>Dantidurga performed a ritual “Hiranya-Garbha” to take rebirth as a Kshatriya.
>He overthrew his Chalukya Lords to form his own kingdom.
>Ruled in the present-day areas of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, and Madhya Pradesh.

Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty
>Founded by Gurjara-Pratihara Harichandra.
>He was also a Brahman who took the arms to establish his kingdom.
>Ruled in the present-day areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh.

Kadamba Dynasty
>Founded by Kadamba Mayurasharman.
>Ruled in the present-day areas of Karnataka.

Pala Dynasty
>Founded by Gopala.
>Ruled in the present-day areas of Bengal and Bihar.

Administration in the New Kingdoms

>High-sounding Titles – Such as Maharaja-Adhiraja, Tribhuvan-Chakravartin, etc.
>Sharing of Power – Power was shared with local rulers, chieftains, Samantas, etc.
>Collection of Taxes – Samantas were given the right to collect taxes.
>Many functionaries (revenue officers) were also appointed to collect a variety of taxes.

Prashastis and Land Grants

>Learned Brahmanas often praised the kings as valiant, courageous, and victorious.
>In return, Brahmanas were given land grants.
>As proof of the land grants, Brahmanas were given copper plates and royal seals.
>Copper plates included all the related to the land grants.

Mostly the Brahmanas praised the rulers but Kalhana was one such author who also criticized the policies of the Kashmir ruler.

Warfare for Wealth

When kings fought battles for capturing wealth and expanding their kingdoms, it was called warfare for wealth.

Examples:
(1) Tripartite Struggle among Gurjara-Pratiharas, Palas, and Rashtrakutas for Kanauj.
(2) Invasions and raids on Temples by Mahmud of Ghazni (Afghanistan).
(3) Expansion of the kingdoms of Chauhans.

*Al-Biruni who came with Mahmud of Ghazni, wrote a book called “Kitab-ul-Hind” about India.

The Kingdom of Cholas

Rise of the Cholas


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