NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 5 Notes are precise and simplified. NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 5 Notes covers all the key points from all the topics from the chapter.
NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 5 Notes
There were many great constructed in the medieval period of history. Constructing monuments like Qutub Minar required great precision and skilled craftsmanship.
There were two kinds of structures constructed by the rulers:
(1) Forts, palaces, garden residences, and tombs for
(2) Temples, mosques, tanks, wells, caravanserais, and bazaars for public activities.
Apart from the rulers, many other rich influential people like merchants, nobles also constructed big mansions (Havelis), wells, temples, etc.
Engineering Skills and Monuments
Monuments provide an insight into the technologies used for construction. For example, roofs were built by placing wooden beams or stone slabs above the walls with sophisticated skills.
Roofs, doors, and windows were built by placing stone beams across the vertical columns in the trabeate or corbelled style of architecture.
Two technological and stylistic developments are noticeable from the twelfth century.
(1) Arches: The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by arches. This architectural form was called “arcuate”.
(2) Limestone cement – High-quality cement mixed with stone chips hardened into concrete. This made the construction of large structures easier and faster.
Construction of Temples, Mosques and Tanks
Construction of Temples
(1) Temples were constructed as places of worship.
(2) Temples and mosques were constructed to demonstrate power and wealth.
(3) Rulers expressed their devotion to God in these temples.
(4) Temples became the center for religious activities.
Construction of Mosques
(1) Mosques were constructed by Muslim rulers to proclaim a close relationship with God.
(2) Muslim rulers assumed the responsibility of spreading Islam.
(3) Mosques served as the center for offering prayers to God.
(4) Mosques also gave a sense of community and unity among Muslims in India.
Construction of Tanks and Reservoirs
It was believed that the rule of a just king would always have adequate rainfall and availability of water.
Making precious water available by constructing tanks and reservoirs was highly praised.
So the rulers constructed tanks and reservoirs for public use.
Why were Temples targeted?
Since temples were built to demonstrate devotion, wealth, and power. Hence, these temples were targeted when the rulers attacked one another’s kingdoms.
The rulers and invaders targeted temples
(1) To capture wealth and precious idols.
(2) To display their political and military powers.
(1) Pandyan king Shrimara Shrivallabha invaded Sri Lanka and seized a statue of Buddha made of gold along with other valuable articles.
(2) Chola King Rajendra I built a Shiva temple in his capital and filled it with prized statues seized from defeated rulers.
(3) Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni raided and looted the wealth and idols of the temples.
Gardens, Tombs and Forts
The Mughal rulers, especially Shah Jahan took a personal interest in literature, art and architecture. Shah Jahan’s reign (1627 – 1658) is considered the golden age of Mughal Architecture.
Babur described his interest in planning and laying out formal gardens, placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters
by artificial channels. (Char Bagh)