NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 8 Notes covers all the key points in a precise and simplified way. NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 8 Notes are easy to understand and learn.

NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 8 Notes

NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 8 Notes

Bhakti movement refers to ideas of devotion to one or more gods and goddesses.

Popular Beliefs in the Medieval society
>Humans go through a cycle of birth and rebirth.
>All humans are not equal. There are differences among the people.
(1) Difference based on Birthright
(2) Biological differences

Many people did not like these differences and adopted ideas that were beyond these differences and the birth cycle.
(1) Some adopted Buddhism and Jainism
(2) Others followed devotional approaches

Devotional Approaches

The idea of supreme God or Goddesses

Shiva, Vishnu, or Durga were worshiped as Supreme God or Goddesses. People believed that by bhakti and devotion people can attain salvation.

Four Sections of Hinduism
The idea of supreme God or Goddess led to the Four Sections of Hinduism

(1) Vaishnavism – Supreme God as Vishnu, Followers were known as Vaishnavas. (Monotheism)

(2) Shaivism – Supreme God as Shiva, Followers were known as Shaiva. (Monotheism)

(3) Shaktism – Supreme Goddess as Shakti (Durga), Followers were known as Shakteya. (Monotheism)

(3) Smartism – More than one supreme god, Followers are known as Smarta. (Polytheism)

Bhakti Movements in South India

Nayanars (followers of Shiva) and Alvars (followers of Vishnu)
>Both Nayanar and Alvar Saints went from place to place.
>Composed poems and songs.
>Composed music.

Advaita
>Started by Shankaracharya in Kerala in the 8th Century.
>Advaita – The doctrine of the oneness of the individual soul and the Supreme God.
>Advocated the renunciation of the world.
>Considered the world as an illusion.

Vishistadvaita
>Started by Ramanujacharya in Tamil Nadu in the 11th Century.
>Vishishtadvaita – The extended doctrine of the oneness of would and the Supreme God.
>Every soul remains distinct even when united with the Supreme God.
>Ramanuja was inspired by Alvars.
>Advocated intense devotion to Vishnu for attaining salvation.

Virashaivism
>Started by Basavanna, Akkamahadevi, Alama Prabhu in Karnataka in the 13th Century.
>Argued for the equality of everyone.
>Rejected idol worship, caste system, and discrimination against women.

Saints from Maharashtra

>13 – 17th Century
>Worship of Lord Vitthala
>Famous Temple at Pandharpur, Solapur, Maharashtra.
>Popular Saints – Gyaneshwar, Tukaram, Namdev, Eknath, etc.
>Rejected (Rituals, Social Differences, Renunciation of the world.)
>Believed in serving needy human beings.

Nathpanthis, Siddhas, and Yogis

>13 – 17th Century
>Criticised rituals and Social Differences
>Believed in the renunciation of the world.
>Salvation could be attained by meditation on the formless Universal Soul.
>Trained their body and minds through yoga asanas, breathing exercises, and meditation.

Islam and Sufism

>Sufis were Muslim mystics.
>Religious scholars developed different aspects of the Holy Law (Shariat) and theology of Islam
>Rejected idol worship and rituals.
>Monotheism – Believed in one only God. (Allah)
>Believed that the heart can be trained to look at the world in a different way.
>Hospices (Khanqahs) – Assemblies of religious Pirs. (Discussed spiritual matters, sought the blessings of the saints in solving their worldly problems)

>The tomb or dargah of a Sufi saint became a place of pilgrimage.


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